Saturday, August 22, 2020

Consumer Society Gives People Choice free essay sample

In the previous thirty years we as a social society have moved from being classed as an Industrial Society, where everything was fixated on what our identity depended on our job to a Consumer Society, where we are no longer idea of as far as what we do, yet more by what we are into and how and why we expend the manner in which we do. The utilization of merchandise and relaxation administrations is viewed as one of the most significant social exercises. The Consumer Society we live in today offers us as shoppers a wide and changed decision. Decisions not just of where and when to shop at our own accommodation yet additionally decisions of what we need to buy. The greater part of the shopping in the UK today is done at the away Supermarket or Retail Park, where you can buy pretty much anything from food supplies to cameras, garments to family unit furniture. We will compose a custom paper test on Purchaser Society Gives People Choice or on the other hand any comparable point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page The High Street anyway is still exceptionally well known among the individuals who like or can't go away and there is additionally the choice of list and on line shopping. What we do buy can be viewed as a pointer of who we seem to be. Most of utilization is tied in with communicating who we are as people instead of really purchasing things for their utilization. Individuals purchase certain merchandise since they have importance to them or on the grounds that they need to have a place or fit in. Individuals feel they are estimated by their garments, their vehicles and even by their homes. Take cell phones for instance; a customary modest telephone refrains the new creator telephone that incorporates all the additional items, the two telephones fill a similar need, both have a camera, mp3 player and the most recent games. The thing that matters is the sticker price. Individuals purchase these costly telephones to flaunt to other people, as they accept telephone says something regarding what their identity is. This conduct is better referred to by Social Scientists as Conspicuous Consumption. In his book The Theory of the Leisure Class, 1899, Thorstein Veblen examined the purchaser propensities for the rich towards the finish of the nineteenth century. Veblen expressed that, â€Å"luxury things that were purchased were put in plain view in their homes, so visitors would see the trappings of accomplishment on display†. (Hetherington 2009, p. 32) Even however this was seen over a hundred years prior, it can in any case be seen today with individuals flaunting their vehicles, occasions and extravagance family things, for example, TVs and PC games supports. Childhood and instruction can likewise impact our choices, as can pay and the manner in which merchandise are publicized. We as a Consumer Society are very enticed by the intensity of ad. On the off chance that merchandise or recreation administrations are promoted in the correct manner out consideration is gotten and the publicizing offices know this. The utilization of somebody popular advancing the most recent scent or sporting gear appears to work, and we as purchasers will in general surge out to purchase the most recent trendy things on offer. We are persuaded that we make the way of life that coordinates our personality. Shopper Society offers individuals decision, anyway not every person has a similar decision. Not every person can devour similarly, a few of us have low paid employments or essentially no enthusiasm for being up to speed in the game. The Consumer Society of today is a lot of a Divided Society. This is appropriately because of limitations between the older and the youthful, the utilized and jobless. The jobless can't expend similarly as those with high paid occupations, the older and those without vehicles won't have the option to visit the huge Retail Parks. Quite a bit of this comes down to Zygmunt Bauman’s 1988 hypothesis of the Seduced and the Repressed. Bauman isolates Consumer Society into two classifications, the Seduced who can devour viably as they have the methods and the social conditions are in support of them and the Repressed who shockingly are not in the situation to expend as the Seduced do, due it be to absence of cash, physical or versatility troubles. Because of this, a gathering of companions may bar a youngster without an occupation from going out evening clubbing with them. The decisions we have about where we shop are some of the time affected by a portion of the large Supermarkets. The large Supermarkets and Retail Parks consistently appear to be full. Regardless of whether individuals like or aversion doing their week by week schedule shop, a great many people will decide to shop there as they offer a wide scope of merchandise at low costs, and they are seen by most to be a protected and helpful method of shopping contrasted with the frequently overrated High Street. General stores have developed in force and size in the previous forty years and they impact our decisions corresponding to what and where we purchase. Some would state that Tesco hold the Monopoly in the UK; they currently have more than 2000 stores across the country and are expanding their piece of the pie. Around 33% of the UK’s shopping for food is done at Tesco’s. Asda, Sainsbury’s and Morrison’s intently follow behind. Most our shopping is generally done in one of these enormous four, which implies, customers don't generally have that much decision over where to shop, as each of the four sell similar items at pretty much a similar cost, so it is to a greater extent an individual decision over which one of the large four we pick as opposed to the decisions they offer us. There are numerous contentions for and against Supermarkets, a few people will decide not to shop there, for reasons, for example, they can't help contradicting what they speak to. These will in general be green-disapproved of individuals who care increasingly about the earth, so they decide to shop at their neighborhood natural road markets and bolster their nearby ranchers. These kind of individuals depict an alternate message about what their identity is contrasted and somebody purchasing the equivalent more affordable merchandise from one of the huge Supermarkets. Many avoid Supermarkets as some vibe that they offer peep costs to the detriment of defenseless laborers at home and abroad. While others contend that it is better that these individuals have a vocation instead of no activity by any stretch of the imagination. Whichever way the discussion between the two is still on going. Helen Rimmer from the ‘Friends of the Earth’, states that the development of the enormous four Supermarkets has made it very hard for the littler shops on the High Street to endure, and â€Å"approximately fifty little shops close every week†. She likewise states â€Å"around the nation there’s developing worry about the predominance of Supermarkets on our High Streets and our town centres†. Proof in the Social Sciences (2009) CD 1). Interestingly, Richard Dodd from the ‘British Retail Consortium’ differs and contends for the Supermarkets, expressing that the costs pull in clients, â€Å"Ninety percent of individuals really utilize one of the huge four Supermarkets at any rate once every month and welcome what Supermarkets do and use them regularly†. (Proof in the Social Sciences (2009) CD 1). Shopper Society appears to support those with cash and the individuals who wish to be a piece of the crowd of cool cats. Retail Parks and Shopping Centers are turning out to be increasingly more well known as individuals like to do their shopping in one spot and in light of the fact that they offer progressively decision at better costs and on the grounds that they feel more secure than on the High Street, this anyway is as yet an open finished conversation.

Wednesday, July 15, 2020

Box Breathing Techniques and Benefits

Box Breathing Techniques and Benefits Meditation Print Box Breathing Techniques and Benefits By Elizabeth Scott, MS twitter Elizabeth Scott, MS, is a wellness coach specializing in stress management and quality of life, and the author of 8 Keys to Stress Management. Learn about our editorial policy Elizabeth Scott, MS Updated on February 16, 2020  istockphoto More in Self-Improvement Meditation Happiness Stress Management Spirituality Holistic Health Inspiration Brain Health Technology Relationships View All Despite the somewhat exotic name, box breathing is a very simple and even familiar type of stress management exercise. If youve ever found yourself inhaling and exhaling to a rhythm while you run or listen to music, youve taken the first steps. Box breathing is a type of paced breathing that follows a certain rhythm, and it can help you to minimize stress. How Box Breathing Works Box breathing, also known as four-square breathing, involves exhaling to a count of four, holding your lungs empty for a four-count, inhaling at the same pace, and holding air in your lungs for a count of four before exhaling and beginning the pattern anew. How Box Breathing Compares to Other Forms of Stress Management Box breathing doesnt carry the physical benefits of exercise or the long-term mental and resilience benefits of meditation, but it definitely has its place as a stress management technique. For one thing, its very simple to learn and to practice.?? Also, it can be practiced virtually anywhere and anytimeâ€"when youre showering, watching tv, or even working. You can give it a try anywhere when youre not so distracted that you cant spare any attention, or exercising so strenuously that you cant talk through it. Also, you can practice box breathing for only a minute or two and experience the immediate benefits of a calm body and a more relaxed mind, or you can practice for several minutes and experience that plus the longer-term benefits of meditation, including increased resilience to stress, decreased feelings of depression, increased positive feelings, and more. What the Research Says Unfortunately, theres not a lot of research specifically on box breathing, as this is a relatively new technique. However, there is quite a  bit of research on breathing exercises in general, and on paced breathing as well?? , which is the category of breathing exercise this would best fit. There is also research on visualization and meditation???, of course, and the practice of box breathing can facilitate  both of these. For visualization, simply imagine that you are inflating and draining a balloon with each cycle, for example. For meditation, you can add a mantra to repeat rather than counting to four, and gain the benefits of mantra meditation, or transcendental meditation, which has been found to be quite beneficial for physical and mental health. Here are some study findings  that can support the effectiveness of box breathing: Studies on transcendental meditation and mindfulness-based stress reductionâ€"another form of meditationâ€"have found that meditation (mantra-based and mindfulness-based) can both lead to decreased stress and anxiety, lower blood pressure, greater feelings of happiness, and reduced feelings of depression.?? While this isnt specific research on box breathing, this may apply to box breathing when practiced for around 20 minutes at a time, because this can help you to get into a meditative state.Research on deep breathing shows that it is useful not only for stress management but also for reducing blood pressure and minimizing hypertension as well.??Studies have found that simple practices like breathing exercises are effective in reducing stress in everyday situations like the experience of test anxiety, sometimes to a greater degree than more complex stress management techniques.?? How to Practice Box Breathing Box breathing is exceedingly simple to practice. Simply relax your body and do the following: Let out all of the air in your lungs to the count of four.Keep your lungs empty for a count of four.Inhale for a count of four.Keep your lungs full for a count of four. Thats it! You can vary this in a few different ways. As mentioned before, you can make the practice into a sort of mantra meditation by saying a mantra rather than counting to four. Mississippi, or something with four syllables can work wellâ€"I feel so calm, Im here right now, or even just O-o-m-m, stretched out to four counts can work. Another variation is to visualize four sides of a box changing to a new color, one after the other, or in a line as though the box is being traced by a colored pen you hold with your mind, making this into a visualization exercise. Practicing for five minutes can provide a quick break from stress, but if you practice for longerâ€"10 to 20 minutes, for exampleâ€"it can fall under the umbrella of meditation, which carries even more lasting benefits. Apps to Try There are several apps that can help you practice box breathing or other types of paced breathing for stress relief. Whats great about these apps is that they can add a visual element to your practice. If youre a visual learner, you can practice these breathing techniques with the app to the point that you really connect with them, then visualize what you experience in the apps even when youre not using them, like in the shower or while driving. This makes it easier for many people to both learn the techniques, and enjoy them more. Here are a few of the top apps for box breathing and other types of paced breathing exercises: Box Breathing App:  This one can be downloaded for  Apple or Android devices, and has nine levels of use that can help you to really get a firm grasp on the practice of box breathing and make it part of your daily routine. The app  includes full and partial audio prompts and tracks your practice history so you can see how much time youre spending with this stress relief activity. The makers of the app claim that it has been voted Best tool to achieve a state of flow, which is a wonderful distinction from stress management and creativity perspective, though its unclear who conducted this poll.Breathe 2 Relax: This app is also available for both Apple and PCâ€"oriented users and has a wide range of timed  breathing exercises to use. It was developed by the National Institute for Telehealth and Technology, an organization within the U.S. Department of Defense. One of its strong points is that it has a graph feature that can help you to determine where much of your stress originates.Univ ersal Breathing:  This is also available for iOS and Android users, and has a variety of visual exercises that work with your breathing. They become increasingly challenging, helping you to gain more complex skills with your breathing exercises. This can be particularly enjoyable for those who love a challenge and may become bored with an app that may feel repetitive, but want the benefits of practicing calming techniques like breathing exercises.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Influence of Farming on the IS Economy

From the nations earliest days, farming has held a crucial place in the American economy and culture. Farmers play an important role in any society, of course, since they feed people. But farming has been particularly valued in the United States. Early in the nations life, farmers were seen as exemplifying economic virtues such as hard work, initiative, and self-sufficiency. Moreover, many Americans — particularly immigrants who may have never held any land and did not have ownership over their own labor or products — found that owning a farm was a ticket into the American economic system. Even people who moved out of farming often used land as a commodity that could easily be bought and sold, opening another avenue for profit. The American Farmers Role in the US Economy The American farmer has generally been quite successful at producing food. Indeed, sometimes his success has created his biggest problem: the agricultural sector has suffered periodic bouts of overproduction that have depressed prices. For long periods, the  government helped smooth out the worst of these episodes. But in recent years, such assistance has declined, reflecting governments desire to cut its own spending, as well as the farm sectors reduced political influence. American farmers owe their ability to produce large yields to a number of factors. For one thing, they work under extremely favorable natural conditions. The American Midwest has some of the richest soil in the world. Rainfall is modest to abundant over most areas of the country; rivers and underground water permit extensive irrigation where it is not. Large capital investments and increasing use of highly trained labor also have contributed to the success of American agriculture. It is not unusual to see todays farmers driving tractors with air-conditioned cabs hitched to very expensive, fast-moving plows, tillers, and harvesters. Biotechnology has led to the development of seeds that are disease- and drought-resistant. Fertilizers and pesticides are commonly used (too commonly, according to some environmentalists). Computers track farm operations, and even space technology is utilized to find the best places to plant and fertilize crops. Whats more, researchers periodically introduce new food products and new methods for raising them, such as artificial ponds to raise fish. Farmers have not repealed some of the fundamental laws of nature, however. They still must contend with forces beyond their control — most notably the weather. Despite its generally benign weather, North America also experiences frequent floods and droughts. Changes in the weather give agriculture its own economic cycles, often unrelated to the general economy. Government Assistance to Farmers Calls for government assistance come when factors work against the farmers success; at times, when different factors converge to push farms over the edge into failure, pleas for help are particularly intense. In the 1930s, for instance, overproduction, bad weather, and the Great Depression combined to present what seemed like insurmountable odds to many American farmers. The government responded with sweeping agricultural reforms — most notably, a system of price supports. This large-scale intervention, which was unprecedented, continued until the late 1990s, when Congress dismantled many of the support programs. By the late 1990s, the U.S. farm economy continued its own cycle of ups and downs, booming in 1996 and 1997, then entering another slump in the subsequent two years. But it was a different farm economy than had existed at the centurys start. --- This article is adapted from the book Outline of the U.S. Economy by Conte and Carr and has been adapted with permission from the U.S. Department of State.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Geoffrey Chaucer s The Canterbury Tales - 867 Words

At the beginning of Geoffrey Chaucer’s â€Å"The Canterbury Tales,† he opens with a description of twenty-nine characters who are going on a pilgrimage to Canterbury. Each character in the story represent a stereotype of a kind of person that would be seen in England during the Fourteenth Century. Every single character is unique, but also embodies physical and behavioral traits that would be common for someone in their profession. He writes each character so they have realistic qualities. However, when viewed more closely, a reader can determine which of these characters have a convincing or questionable personality. Chaucer first sets the mood by providing an overall idea of each character before they tell their stories. The physical and†¦show more content†¦Chaucer states that he is an expert in stealing grain and charging three times the amount, but yet he still has a golden thumb. â€Å"An honest miller hath a golden thumb† is a pun used to ironical ly state that this Miller’s golden thumb comes from the increase in his own profit (Chaucer). The portrait that the Miller draws is based upon the negative stereotypes on the lower-class people during the medieval times. The idea was that these people had more brawn than brains, which he clearly demonstrates in his prologue. Another character that is criticized in the Prologue is the Wife of Bath. Her character is larger than life. She is described as having wide hips, a hat as bigs as a boat, and, just in general, taking up a lot of space in the pilgrimage and in the story as a whole. The Wife dresses in expensive clothes such, Her kerchiefs were finely wove†¦/ I dare to swear those weighed a good ten pounds, /That on a Sunday she wore on her head† (Chaucer). Her physical appearance matches a medieval stereotype of a lustful person. This stereotype was seen in a person who could not control their passions. The Wife falls perfectly in line with this stereotype by telling the other characters how she has had five husbands. Having so many husbands has made her skilled in â€Å"the oldest dance† (Chaucer). With the Wife of Bath, Chaucer is laying out the stereotypical medieval state

Civilized or Uncivilized Free Essays

Civilized or uncivilized Civilization is a limitless multiplication of unnecessary necessities. —-Mark Twain In Montaigne’s essay on Cannibals, those people living in the uncivilized societies are first referred to as â€Å"noble savages†. However, most Europeans, at that time, believed that the people without â€Å"the benefits of Christianity and civilization† can not be regarded as civilized or advanced. We will write a custom essay sample on Civilized or Uncivilized or any similar topic only for you Order Now Montaigne holds his ideas and specifically illustrates the reasons of the social norm that uncivilized people seem barbarous are that they have received little molding from the human intelligence and are very close to their original simplicity. Montaigne also criticizes the barbarian actions of â€Å"civilized† European society such as torturing prisoners. He also branches out topic to valour and believes that true victory lies the prize of valour, not winning itself. Based on the ideas of Montaigne, â€Å"civilized† world is not as perfect as people thought, and motivate readers to rethink what civilization is about. What I learn from that essay is that civilized people may sometimes have extremely uncivilized behaviors, and uncivilized people also have their civilized aspects. For those â€Å"uncivilized† people, in this essay, it is said that two things are the most important of their life which are â€Å"resolution in battle† and â€Å"affection for their wives†. Although their way of life seems limited, they live happily with their way of life. I admit their life are simple, but not uncivilized or barbarian. Their fighting is noble and disinterested because all they want to do is to show their valour which is also what people living in â€Å"civilized† societies want. However, we label them with â€Å"uncivilized† by reference to the laws of reason and social norms created by completely different cultures of us, and keep doing the barbarian behaviors which are not belong to our â€Å"perfect† society such as killing the innocent in order to develop new territories. The action of judging another culture â€Å"uncivilized† actually shows the weakness of â€Å"civilized† society. Therefore, the difference between both sides are not civilized or not, but the different cultures. All those different cultures make this world more colorful. Montaigne uses Plato’s words in this essay to differentiate various societies or ations,which I agree with most part of those words. It is said that â€Å"all things are produced by either nature, or by chance, or by art; the greatest and most beautiful by one or other of the first two, the least and most imperfect by the last†. I agree that things are produced because of those three reasons, but I don’t think any one is better than another, because everything has its own reason of existing. All the different cultures make up of civilization, therefore, as Mark Twain said, civilization is necessities no matter they are necessary or not. How to cite Civilized or Uncivilized, Papers

Friday, April 24, 2020

Walt Disneys “Cinderella” Morally Corrupt and Biased Essay Example For Students

Walt Disneys â€Å"Cinderella†: Morally Corrupt and Biased? Essay Walt Disney’s â€Å"Cinderella†: Morally Corrupt and Biased? For over fifty years, the magical tale that is known the world over as Walt Disney’s â€Å"Cinderella† has been passed down from generation to generation, in particularly as a popular bedtime story request from youngsters. Even more so, over the past three decades it has even become a staple in almost every young child’s home video collection. While Walt Disney’s classic offers children a land to explore their imagination, and even a young female figure to look up to, are we as parents and society as a whole exposing our young ones to the most morally upbeat and appropriate rendition of the classic tale? With Walt Disney’s take on â€Å"Cinderella† being an animated motion picture, most notably targeted towards a younger audience, it seems perfectly fine for the film to be chock-full of whimsical scenes of magic and lots of eye appealing imagery. We will write a custom essay on Walt Disneys â€Å"Cinderella†: Morally Corrupt and Biased? specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now One will also notice that in Disney’s take, he seems to associate the antagonist/villain roles with â€Å"ugly† characteristics, such as being fat or old and wrinkled. In Walt Disney’s adaption, he clearly states that â€Å"the ugly stepsisters were powdered, pressed, and curled† (641). While using these descriptive yet sometimes misleading methods to captivate the younger audience, it seems to overshadow the more important themes, age old sayings such as â€Å"beauty is in the eye of the beholder† and â€Å"it’s what’s on the inside that counts†. On the contrary, Charles Perrault describes Cinderella’s dress as â€Å"a dress of gold and silver cloth† (626), and her footwear as â€Å"a pair of glass slippers, beautifully made† (626). Perrault never describes the stepsisters as fat or ugly, and establishes their â€Å"mean† qualities based upon their actions. Because Perrault’s spin on the classic tale is written and not expressed visually, it allows the reader to run rampant with their imagination, granting them the opportunity to formulate their own perception of what â€Å"beautiful† is. After all, we all have our own opinion, so why not exercise the right to form one? In Walt Disney’s rendition of the classic tale, Cinderella takes on numerous amounts of duties preparing her stepsisters for the ball, not because she wants to, but because she has to, while in Perrault’s adaption, he stresses that Cinderella â€Å"made useful suggestions and even offered to do their hair for them† (625). Perrault closes out his rendition of the classic tale with a aragraph describing Cinderella’s stepsisters’ reactions to the glass slipper fitting her foot, stating that the stepsisters â€Å"flung themselves at her feet and begged for forgiveness for all of the unkind things which they had done to her† (628). Perrault then continues on to state that â€Å"Cinderella raised them up and kissed them, saying that she forgave them with all her heart and asking them to love her always† (628). Upon closer observation, the viewer, and in this case, the reader will notice that while Perrault’s â€Å"Cinderella† is built upon a strong backbone of morality, specifically the old saying of â€Å"do unto others as you would have others do unto you†, the Disney version seems to lack any sense of moral structure. While Disney’s adaption doesn’t directly address whether or not Cinderella forgave her stepsisters in the end, it seems as though Perrault’s adaption is well rounded, preserving and directly addressing some of the key values we as a society try our best to instill in our children to this very day. While the classic tale of Cinderella is a very warm story that leaves us with a positive, if not almost abrupt ending, it is important to be aware of the more important values being exposed to the viewer and/or reader. Make certain that it is understood that individuals are not mean simply because they are ugly or fat, such as the case with the stepsisters in Disney’s adaption, and that being skinny or young doesn’t necessarily warrant beauty within an individual. .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939 , .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939 .postImageUrl , .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939 , .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939:hover , .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939:visited , .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939:active { border:0!important; } .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939:active , .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939 .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u47c082e5360fa7352e34ed7dfb235939:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Essay On Lahey Introductory Notes EssayIt is also extremely important that the viewer and/or reader be allowed to form their own opinions of what beauty is to them, and not necessarily have those opinions based on a certain image portrayed within a movie. After all, beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Works Cited Perrault, Charles. â€Å"Cinderella†. Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Ed. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. 11th ed. Boston: Longman, 2005. 624-628. Print. Grant, Campbell. â€Å"Walt Disney’s â€Å"Cinderella†Ã¢â‚¬ . Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Ed. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. 11th ed. Boston: Long man, 2005. 641-642. Print.